EUCAR is the European Council for Automotive R&D of the major European passenger car and commercial vehicle manufacturers. EUCAR facilitates and coordinates pre-competitive research and development projects and its members participate in a wide range of collaborative European R&D programmes. The European automobile manufacturers are the largest private investors in R&D in Europe with over €50 billion investment per annum, or 4% of turnover. EUCAR members are BMW, DAF, Daimler, FIAT Chrysler Automobiles, Ford of Europe, Opel Automobile GmbH, Hyundai, IVECO, Jaguar Land Rover, PSA Peugeot Citroën, Renault, Toyota, Volkswagen, Volvo Cars and Volvo Group. EUCAR is closely connected to ACEA, the European Automobile Manufacturers Association.