EUCAR is the European Council for Automotive R&D of the major European passenger car and commercial vehicle manufacturers. EUCAR facilitates and coordinates pre-competitive research and development projects and its members participate in a wide range of collaborative European R&D programmes. The European automobile manufacturers are the largest private investors in R&D in Europe with over €32 billion investment per annum, or 4% of turnover. EUCAR members are BMW, DAF, Daimler, FIAT Chrysler Automobiles, Ford of Europe, GM/Opel, Hyundai, Jaguar Land Rover, PSA Peugeot Citroën, Renault, Toyota, Volkswagen, Volvo Cars and Volvo Group. EUCAR is closely connected to ACEA, the European Automobile Manufacturers Association.